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Smart Contract Testing Library

In this section, we will create test functions for our smart contract using the Concordium smart contract testing library.
You can find the documentation in concordium-testing-library. As explained in the developer portal, the library simulates part of a blockchain locally to allow you to create one or more contracts and interact with them in the tests. Simply put, you can deploy your contracts to your local environment and interact with them to test before even deploying them to testnet. Nice huh?

Testing Library Configurations

Start by adding the concordium-smart-contract-testing library to the Cargo.toml located in the project root. You should add it under the section [dev-dependencies] which are dependencies only needed during development as it is only needed during testing. The library requires the Rust edition 2021 or greater, which you must also set:
[package]
# ...
edition = "2021"
[dev-dependencies]
concordium-smart-contract-testing = "3.0"

Add a test module

Since a smart contract module is a regular Rust library, you can test it as you would test any library and add integration tests in the tests folder.
Create the folder tests in the root of your project and add the file tests.rs inside it.
Import the testing library and your contract at the top of the file.
use concordium_smart_contract_testing::*;

Implementation

In this section, we will start with the definitions of the constants and then continue with the function implementations. We will create the test.rs file line by line together, so bear with us!
Imports
All of the data types, structs, and other required elements are imported from the cis2_dynamic_nft smart contract.
use cis2_dynamic_nft::{
ContractError, ContractTokenAmount, ContractTokenId, ContractTokenMetadataQueryParams,
MintParam, MintParams, ViewAddressState, ViewState,
};
use concordium_cis2::*;
use concordium_smart_contract_testing::*;
use concordium_std::*;

Constants

For the sake of tests, we will use two accounts ALICE & BOB, two tokens TOKEN_0 & TOKEN_2, an account balance with 10000 CCDs as ACC_INITIAL_BALANCE,and a SIGNER.
/// The tests accounts.
const ALICE: AccountAddress = AccountAddress([0; 32]);
const ALICE_ADDR: Address = Address::Account(ALICE);
const BOB: AccountAddress = AccountAddress([1; 32]);
const BOB_ADDR: Address = Address::Account(BOB);
/// Token IDs.
const TOKEN_0: ContractTokenId = TokenIdU8(3);
const TOKEN_2: ContractTokenId = TokenIdU8(5);
/// Initial balance of the accounts.
const ACC_INITIAL_BALANCE: Amount = Amount::from_ccd(10000);
/// A signer with one key.
const SIGNER: Signer = Signer::with_one_key();
You created the account addresses using an array of 32 bytes, which is how account addresses are represented on Concordium.
Initialize Chain and Contract
In the following, we are going to set up a local chain including accounts, deploy our smart contract module, and initialize the contract. Use the build that has been created in the previous section. This is an important function and we will re-use it while creating the other test functions.
/// Setup chain and contract.
///
/// Also creates the two accounts, Alice and Bob.
///
/// Alice is the owner of the contract.
fn initialize_chain_and_contract() -> (concordium_smart_contract_testing::Chain, ContractAddress) {
let mut chain = concordium_smart_contract_testing::Chain::new();
// Create some accounts accounts on the chain.
chain.create_account(Account::new(ALICE, ACC_INITIAL_BALANCE));
chain.create_account(Account::new(BOB, ACC_INITIAL_BALANCE));
// Load and deploy the module.
let module = module_load_v1("concordium-out/module.wasm.v1").expect("Module exists");
let deployment = chain.module_deploy_v1(SIGNER, ALICE, module).expect("Deploy valid module");
// Initialize the contract.
let init = chain
.contract_init(SIGNER, ALICE, Energy::from(10000), InitContractPayload {
amount: Amount::zero(),
mod_ref: deployment.module_reference,
init_name: OwnedContractName::new_unchecked("init_cis2_dynamic_nft".to_string()),
param: OwnedParameter::empty(),
})
.expect("Initialize contract");
(chain, init.contract_address)
}
Minting Helper Function
/// Helper function that sets up the contract with two types of tokens minted to
/// Alice. She has 400 of `TOKEN_0` and 400 of `TOKEN_2`.
fn initialize_contract_with_alice_tokens(
) -> (concordium_smart_contract_testing::Chain, ContractAddress, ContractInvokeSuccess) {
let (mut chain, contract_address) = initialize_chain_and_contract();
let mut test_v1 = Vec::new();
test_v1.push(MetadataUrl {
url: format!("https://some.example/token/1/{TOKEN_0}"),
hash: None,
});
// we will need the following to test the upgrade function.
test_v1.push(MetadataUrl {
url: format!("https://some.example/token/2/{TOKEN_0}"),
hash: None,
});
let mut test_v2 = Vec::new();
test_v2.push(MetadataUrl {
url: format!("https://some.example/token/3/{TOKEN_2}"),
hash: None,
});
let mint_param_1 = MintParam {
token_amount: 400.into(),
metadata_url: test_v1,
};
let mut tok = collections::BTreeMap::new();
tok.insert(TOKEN_0, mint_param_1);
let mint_params = MintParams {
owner: ALICE_ADDR,
tokens: tok,
};
let _update = chain
.contract_update(SIGNER, ALICE, ALICE_ADDR, Energy::from(10000), UpdateContractPayload {
amount: Amount::zero(),
receive_name: OwnedReceiveName::new_unchecked("cis2_dynamic_nft.mint".to_string()),
address: contract_address,
message: OwnedParameter::from_serial(&mint_params).expect("Mint params"),
})
.expect("Mint tokens");
let mint_param_2 = MintParam {
token_amount: 400.into(),
metadata_url: test_v2,
};
let mut tok2 = collections::BTreeMap::new();
tok2.insert(TOKEN_2, mint_param_2);
let mint_params = MintParams {
owner: ALICE_ADDR,
tokens: tok2,
};
let update = chain
.contract_update(SIGNER, ALICE, ALICE_ADDR, Energy::from(10000), UpdateContractPayload {
amount: Amount::zero(),
receive_name: OwnedReceiveName::new_unchecked("cis2_dynamic_nft.mint".to_string()),
address: contract_address,
message: OwnedParameter::from_serial(&mint_params).expect("Mint params"),
})
.expect("Mint tokens");
(chain, contract_address, update)
}

Test Functions

Test Minting
/// Test minting succeeds and the tokens are owned by the given address and
/// the appropriate events are logged. When token is minted first index of
/// the Metadata URL vector will be logged, if there is only one MetadatUrl then
/// it will be logged.
#[test]
fn test_minting() {
let (chain, contract_address, update) = initialize_contract_with_alice_tokens();
// Invoke the view entrypoint and check that the tokens are owned by Alice.
let invoke = chain
.contract_invoke(ALICE, ALICE_ADDR, Energy::from(10000), UpdateContractPayload {
amount: Amount::zero(),
receive_name: OwnedReceiveName::new_unchecked("cis2_dynamic_nft.view".to_string()),
address: contract_address,
message: OwnedParameter::empty(),
})
.expect("Invoke view");
// Check that the tokens are owned by Alice.
let rv: ViewState = invoke.parse_return_value().expect("ViewState return value");
assert_eq!(rv.tokens[..], [TOKEN_0, TOKEN_2]);
assert_eq!(rv.state, vec![(ALICE_ADDR, ViewAddressState {
balances: vec![(TOKEN_0, 400.into()), (TOKEN_2, 400.into())],
operators: Vec::new(),
})]);
// Check that the events are logged.
let events = update.events().flat_map(|(_addr, events)| events);
let events: Vec<Cis2Event<ContractTokenId, ContractTokenAmount>> =
events.map(|e| e.parse().expect("Deserialize event")).collect();
assert_eq!(events, [
Cis2Event::Mint(MintEvent {
token_id: TokenIdU8(5),
amount: TokenAmountU64(400),
owner: ALICE_ADDR,
}),
Cis2Event::TokenMetadata(TokenMetadataEvent {
token_id: TokenIdU8(5),
metadata_url: MetadataUrl {
url: format!("https://some.example/token/3/{TOKEN_2}").to_string(),
hash: None,
},
}),
]);
}
Test Upgrade
/// Test upgrading the Metadata token as the contract owner. Once a token is
/// upgraded, the TokenMetadata event will be emitted and it should contain
/// the next MetadataUrl in the Metadata URLs vector and similarly
/// `tokenMetadata` function should return the last MetadataUrl.
#[test]
fn test_upgrade() {
let (mut chain, contract_address, _update) = initialize_contract_with_alice_tokens();
let _update = chain
.contract_update(SIGNER, ALICE, ALICE_ADDR, Energy::from(10000), UpdateContractPayload {
amount: Amount::zero(),
receive_name: OwnedReceiveName::new_unchecked("cis2_dynamic_nft.upgrade".to_string()),
address: contract_address,
message: OwnedParameter::from_serial(&TOKEN_0).expect("TokenId"),
})
.expect("Upgrade tokens");
// Check that the events are logged.
let events = _update.events().flat_map(|(_addr, events)| events);
let events: Vec<Cis2Event<ContractTokenId, ContractTokenAmount>> =
events.map(|e| e.parse().expect("Deserialize event")).collect();
assert_eq!(events, [Cis2Event::TokenMetadata(TokenMetadataEvent {
token_id: TokenIdU8(3),
metadata_url: MetadataUrl {
url: format!("https://some.example/token/2/{TOKEN_0}").to_string(),
hash: None,
},
}),]);
let mut token_param = ContractTokenMetadataQueryParams {
queries: vec![TOKEN_0],
};
token_param.queries.insert(0, TOKEN_0);
// Invoke the tokenMetadata entrypoint and check what MetadataUrl returns
let invoke = chain
.contract_invoke(ALICE, ALICE_ADDR, Energy::from(10000), UpdateContractPayload {
amount: Amount::zero(),
receive_name: OwnedReceiveName::new_unchecked(
"cis2_dynamic_nft.tokenMetadata".to_string(),
),
address: contract_address,
message: OwnedParameter::from_serial(&token_param).expect("tokenMetada params"),
})
.expect("Invoke tokenMetadata");
let rv: TokenMetadataQueryResponse =
invoke.parse_return_value().expect("tokenMetadata return value");
let expected_metadata = MetadataUrl {
url: format!("https://some.example/token/2/{TOKEN_0}"),
hash: None,
};
assert_eq!(rv.0.get(0), Some(&expected_metadata));
}
Test Operator
/// Test that an operator can make a transfer.
#[test]
fn test_operator_can_transfer() {
let (mut chain, contract_address, _update) = initialize_contract_with_alice_tokens();
// Add Bob as an operator for Alice.
let params = UpdateOperatorParams(vec![UpdateOperator {
update: OperatorUpdate::Add,
operator: BOB_ADDR,
}]);
chain
.contract_update(SIGNER, ALICE, ALICE_ADDR, Energy::from(10000), UpdateContractPayload {
amount: Amount::zero(),
receive_name: OwnedReceiveName::new_unchecked(
"cis2_dynamic_nft.updateOperator".to_string(),
),
address: contract_address,
message: OwnedParameter::from_serial(&params).expect("UpdateOperator params"),
})
.expect("Update operator");
// Let Bob make a transfer to himself on behalf of Alice.
let transfer_params = TransferParams::from(vec![concordium_cis2::Transfer {
from: ALICE_ADDR,
to: Receiver::Account(BOB),
token_id: TOKEN_0,
amount: TokenAmountU64(1),
data: AdditionalData::empty(),
}]);
chain
.contract_update(SIGNER, BOB, BOB_ADDR, Energy::from(10000), UpdateContractPayload {
amount: Amount::zero(),
receive_name: OwnedReceiveName::new_unchecked("cis2_dynamic_nft.transfer".to_string()),
address: contract_address,
message: OwnedParameter::from_serial(&transfer_params).expect("Transfer params"),
})
.expect("Transfer tokens");
// Check that Bob now has 1 of `TOKEN_0` and Alice has 399. Also check that
// Alice still has 400 `TOKEN_2`.
let invoke = chain
.contract_invoke(ALICE, ALICE_ADDR, Energy::from(10000), UpdateContractPayload {
amount: Amount::zero(),
receive_name: OwnedReceiveName::new_unchecked("cis2_dynamic_nft.view".to_string()),
address: contract_address,
message: OwnedParameter::empty(),
})
.expect("Invoke view");
let rv: ViewState = invoke.parse_return_value().expect("ViewState return value");
assert_eq!(rv.state, vec![
(ALICE_ADDR, ViewAddressState {
balances: vec![(TOKEN_0, 399.into()), (TOKEN_2, 400.into())],
operators: vec![BOB_ADDR],
}),
(BOB_ADDR, ViewAddressState {
balances: vec![(TOKEN_0, 1.into())],
operators: Vec::new(),
}),
]);
}
Test Unauthorized Sender
/// Test that a transfer fails when the sender is neither an operator or the
/// owner. In particular, Bob will attempt to transfer some of Alice's tokens to
/// himself.
#[test]
fn test_unauthorized_sender() {
let (mut chain, contract_address, _update) = initialize_contract_with_alice_tokens();
// Construct a transfer of `TOKEN_0` from Alice to Bob, which will be submitted
// by Bob.
let transfer_params = TransferParams::from(vec![concordium_cis2::Transfer {
from: ALICE_ADDR,
to: Receiver::Account(BOB),
token_id: TOKEN_0,
amount: TokenAmountU64(1),
data: AdditionalData::empty(),
}]);
// Notice that Bob is the sender/invoker.
let update = chain
.contract_update(SIGNER, BOB, BOB_ADDR, Energy::from(10000), UpdateContractPayload {
amount: Amount::zero(),
receive_name: OwnedReceiveName::new_unchecked("cis2_dynamic_nft.transfer".to_string()),
address: contract_address,
message: OwnedParameter::from_serial(&transfer_params).expect("Transfer params"),
})
.expect_err("Transfer tokens");
// Check that the correct error is returned.
let rv: ContractError = update.parse_return_value().expect("ContractError return value");
assert_eq!(rv, ContractError::Unauthorized);
}
Since the tests run against the compiled Wasm module, there is a risk of accidentally using an outdated Wasm module. To circumvent this, cargo concordium’s test command both builds and tests your contract, which ensures that you always test the newest version of your code. By default, it places the compiled Wasm module in the target/ folder, but you can specify where you want it placed, so the location is easy to specify in your tests. To do so, use the --out parameter when testing.
cargo concordium test --out unit_tests.wasm.v1
Please note that the test command only builds your module in cargo concordium version 2.9.0+. Also note that for the highest assurance of correctness, you should deploy the exact module that you also tested.
This was the end of the tutorial! Keep learning, keep building dear Concordian!